Methylphenidate

Methylphenidate

Methylphenidate

Stimulant

Methylphenidate is a classical potent stimulant substance of the phenidate class, and is known under the trade names Ritalin, Concerta, and Methylin. It is the parent compound of the substituted phenidates, a family of stimulants that includes ethylphenidate, isopropylphenidate, and others. The mechanism of action involves increasing concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine.

Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL, MPH, MPD

Subjective effects include stimulation, focus enhancement, motivation enhancement, increased libido, appetite suppression, and euphoria. It is usually taken orally, but can also be insufflated or administered rectally. The effects are comparable to those of amphetamine; however, it is reported to produce less euphoria and generally have less recreational value. Some users also report it produces a stronger comedown relative to amphetamine.

Methylphenidate was first synthesized in 1944 and was approved for medical use in the United States in 1955 to treat “hyperactivity.” It has since been approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, and is often used by students with or without ADHD as a cognitive enhancer and study aid. In 2019, it was the 51st most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 14 million prescriptions.