Codeine

3-methylmorphine

Opioid

Codeine is a naturally-occurring opioid substance of the morphinan class found in extracts of the poppy, particularly Papaver bracteatum. Codeine is the second most predominant alkaloid in opium (up to 3%). Although codeine can be extracted from natural sources, a semi-synthetic process is the primary source of codeine for pharmaceutical use. It is considered the prototype of the weak-to-midrange opioids (tramadol, dextropropoxyphene, dihydrocodeine and hydrocodone). Fatal overdose may occur when opiates are combined with other depressants, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gabapentinoids, thienodiazepines, alcohol, or other GABAergic substances.

3-Methylmorphine, Lean, Purple Drank, Syrup

Subjective effects include sedation, cough suppression, euphoria, relaxation, anxiety suppression, and pain relief. It produces less intense physical and cognitive euphoria compared to morphine or heroin, and its effects include itchiness, respiratory depression, sedation, appetite suppression, constipation, decreased libido, and nausea. At high doses, it can cause double vision and internal hallucinations, leading to dream-like states and vivid imagery.

Codeine, an opiate derived from the poppy plant, was first isolated in 1832 by French chemist Pierre Robiquet. Initially used primarily as a cough suppressant and pain reliever, it gained popularity in the 19th and 20th centuries, especially in combination with other analgesics. However, its potential for addiction and abuse, due to its conversion to morphine in the liver, led to stricter regulations over time. Today, codeine is used cautiously for moderate pain and cough suppression, and it is one of the most commonly used opioids in the world.

Oral, Smoked